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Beezhold, Bonnie L, et al. “Vegetarian Diets are Associated with Healthy Mood States: A Cross-Sectional Study in Seventh Day Adventist Adults.” Nutrition Journal 9:26 (2010): Print. This article presents the results of a study done on the mental state effects of a vegetarian diet vs. a non-vegetarian diet by researchers at Arizona State University. Fish is a food containing long chain omega-3 fatty acid (a healthy and essential fat). This fat contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which are critical regulators of the brain cell and function. EPA and DHA favorably impact neural function by displacing omega-6 fatty acids in brain cell membranes. Therefore, lack of omega-3 fatty acid could very well have a negative effect on mental health. A study was done on 138 individuals from Santa Barbara, California and Phoenix, Arizona. Participants were classified as a vegetarian if they were not consuming any animal products, including fish, poultry, and dairy products. Researchers took important factors into consideration such as; pregnancy or lactating, chronic disease which affected mental state, or regular use of medication known to influence mood. If participants showed any signs of these factors they were eliminated from the study. A survey with three parts was then done; a general health history questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, and finally two psychometric tests (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and the Profile of Mood States). As a result, although EPA and DHA affect mental state, no signs of negative mood changes seemed to take place in vegetarians. This article was published in 2010 by Nutrition Journal, an academic journal, and can be found through the database Google scholar. The author, Bonnie L. Beezhold is a part of the Department of Nutrition at Arizona State University. The article included a full bibliography, footnotes, discussion of the results, tables, graphs, along with a lot of detail. My investigation can now further due the results the article presented: Although EPH and DHA favorably affect mental state in the brain, vegetarians show no sign of irregular mood changes or signs of depression although they lack consumption omega-3 fatty acid chains.
Cassels, Caroline. “Young Vegetarians May be at Increased Risk for Eating Disorders.” Journal of American Dietetic Association. 109 (2009): 648-655: Print. This article provides information on new research that suggests adolescents and young adults who consume a vegetarian diet are at a greater risk of having an eating disorder. An investigator from College of Saint Benedict and Saint John’s University, Ramona Robinson-O’Brien, explains some risks. She tells how former vegetarians are at risk for extreme weight-control behavior, and current adolescent vegetarians are at risk for binge eating. The article explains the results of a study done on a large number of adolescents, some who were vegetarians, former vegetarians, and non-vegetarians/ never had been. The study involved a questionnaire on details behind passed eating habits, current eating habits, weight behavior, and passed/present eating disorders. The results concluded that those who were former vegetarians now had extreme unhealthful weight-control behaviors. In addition, they consumed diet pills, laxatives, and diuretic use in comparison to those who had never been a vegetarian, who showed no signs of this behavior. The article was reliable because it was found through an academic database, recently published in 2009, and relevant to my inquiry question regarding a vegetarian diet. The author, Caroline Cassels, has been a medical journalist for 20 years, has written for both physician and consumer audiences, and helped launch and edit Health Digest. The article provides, cited sources, information on the author, was written through an academic journal, and found through an academic database. The text concludes that although a vegetarian diet can be very adequate and beneficial for a person’s health; motives should be looked into when an adolescent chooses this diet. Although not always the case, certain people may choose a vegetarian diet in order to avoid eating certain foods or lose weight. This helped my research because the article explained a negative impact on a vegetarian diet rather than just the beneficial factors which the other articles explained.
Jenkins, David JA, et. al. “Type 2 Diabetes and the Vegetarian Diet.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78.3 (2003) 6105-6165. Print. This article explains why there is reason to believe a vegetarian diet can prevent risks of type two diabetes. Foods containing whole grains and legumes have been proven to improve glycemic control in diabetic and insulin resistant people. Studies ultimately have shown that long term consumption of whole grains reduce the risk of type two diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This article benefited my research because it shows a vegetarian diet can cure a disease such as type two diabetes. Also discussing the effects certain foods have on the body in relation to insulin levels and glycemic control. The information is reliable because it’s fairly recent provided peer reviews and information behind the author.
Key, TJ, et. al. “Cancer Incidence in British Vegetarians.” British Journal of Cancer 101 (2009): 192-197. Print. This article explains a study done on British vegetarians, semi-vegetarians, and meat eaters. The goal was to find out if cancers risks are higher in those who consume meat, only consume fish, or only eat a vegetarian diet. The researchers took 61, 566 men and women, 32, 403 of them were meat eaters, 8, 562 of which ate a vegetarian diet but also included fish, and 20, 601 were strictly vegetarians and consumed no meat. The researchers spent 12.2 years studying and documenting the subjects eating habits, lifestyles and found a total of 3, 350 cancer incidents. The results showed 2, 204 cancer cases in meat eaters, 317 cases in fish eaters, and 829 in vegetarians. The researchers were not bias in their research due to them taking many factors into consideration. Some of which included; adjustment for age, smokers, alcohol use, level of activity, body mass index, and for only women, parity or oral contraceptive use. The results concluded that meat eaters had the highest risk for receiving cancer, strict vegetarians had the second highest risk, and vegetarians who also ate fish had the lowest risk of receiving cancer. The article was recently published in 2009 by the reliable, British Journal of Cancer. The study was done at the University of Oxford by a team of intelligent, experienced research scientists. TJ Key is a part of the Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine and involved in the Cancer Epidemiology Unit. He has written many other research articles in the past, many which have had to do with vegetarian diets. The text was clearly relevant, reliable, recent, and also included tables, citations of sources used, a bibliography, peer reviews, and information about each author. This article furthered my research and knowledge behind a vegetarian diet and helped me take other sources into consideration. The text concludes that although a strict vegetarian diet has many benefits over a meat-eaters diet; vegetarians who also include a consumption of fish seem to have less cancer risks than both meat eaters and vegetarians.
Key, Timothy J, et. al. “Mortality in Vegetarians and Non-vegetarians: Detailed Findings from a Collaborative Analysis of 5 Prospective Studies.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70.3 (1999) 5165-5245. Print. This article explains a study done on 76,172 men and women to determine if vegetarian diet causes a shorter or longer life span in comparison to a non-vegetarian diet. The researchers took the participants of the study who were vegetarian and matched them up with a non-vegetarian participant who shared a similar lifestyle. This study involved investigators from 5 prospective studies to combine results and estimate if a vegetarian diet causes a shorter or longer life span and to what might the reasoning be. The researchers took vegetarians, non-vegetarians, vegans, and lacto-vegetarians into consideration for their study. As a result, the participants who consumed a non-vegetarian diet and ate all poultry products had a shorter life expectancy in comparison to all vegetarian based diets. The study was well done because it took many aspects into consideration such as smoking, activity level, and overall the person’s lifestyle. The article finishes up with a discussion explaining the 5 prospective studies and the ratio for death rates among different diseases and the percent of the diseases found in people who consume each diet. The article was published in 1999, by The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition and had been peer reviewed. The author of the article, Timothy J. Key is a researcher from the Imperial Research Cancer Fund. The other authors were from the Center for Health and Research, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, and many more, located in college universities. The article proves its credibility as it provides a bibliography, information on each author, was found through an academic database, and is from the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. My research can now further as I’m aware if an adequate vegetarian diet is consumed, life expectancy of that individual will more than likely increase. The text concludes that certain cancer types will decrease in comparison to those who consume a non-vegetarian diet.
Lanou, Amy Joy. “Should Dairy be Recommended as Part of a Healthy Vegetarian Diet?” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89.5 (2009): 16385-16452. Print. This article explains whether or not a vegetarian diet should consume dairy products, especially milk, and if a lack of this product may cause Osteoporotic Bone Fracture. After research and studies were done, evidence showed that prostate and ovarian cancers may be caused due to dairy and milk products. Studies also show countries which consume large amount of milk and dairy products have higher rates of Osteoporotic Bone Fracture. In addition, the text explains that milk is only essential when a person is an infant and breastfeeding, after the weaning stage, milk is no longer needed to store fat for children. Healthy bones can be built by simply eating high amounts of fruit and vegetables, staying active, and consuming healthier foods such as plant sources. So as a result, the article concludes that a vegetarian diet can in fact not cause any type or bone disease, but actually benefit a person’s bone structure and overall health. In the article, The American Academy of Pediatrics, warned that early introduction of cow milk may have a relation to milk consumption causing Type One Diabetes in children. The article was published in the year 2009 by the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, an academic database which has many peer reviews. The author, Amy Joy Lanou, is from the Department of Health and Wellness located at the University of North, Carolina. She also presented at the symposium, “Fifth International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition,” in the year 2008. The article stated a list of references and cited many of the sources throughout the text. This article added information to my inquiry question because I now am aware that dairy products may carry essential nutrients, but those nutrients can be found in other sources that are much healthier.
Winston, Craig J. “Health Effects of a Vegan Diet.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89.5 (2009): 16275- 16335. Print. The purpose of this text was to explain the diet of a vegetarian and a vegan and why a vegan may have nutrient deficiency. The article begins by explaining how a vegetarian diet has become very popular over the years. Vegetarians tend to be very healthy due to a high intake of fiber, along with consumptions of folic acid, Vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and fat that is generally unsaturated. A vegan is typically very thin due to their higher intake of fiber, and even smaller intake of saturated fat and cholesterol. The text explains that due to a vegan diet, the individual will have a lower serum cholesterol and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, a vegan diet can also cause nutrient deficiency due to elimination of all animal products. The text explains how a vegan diet certainly has risks if not consumed adequately, but there are ways around that to make a vegan diet meet all nutrient needs. Supplements are recommended for vegans to consume, especially calcium and vitamin D in order for their bone structure to stay strong. The article was not only published recently, in 2009, the author Craig Winston is from the Department of Health and Wellness at Andrews University, in Berrien Springs, MI. The article cited many resources used throughout the text, such as data from the Adventist Health Study and results from the EPIC-OXFORD study. The author was reliable as he has done research on vegetarian and vegan diets in the past and also presented at the symposium, “Fifth International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition,” in 2008. The article includes a list of references, information on the author, peer reviews, citations, and has been cited by other articles. The text concludes the risks and benefits of a vegan diet, and that although many nutrient deficiencies may be caused; there are ways to consume an adequate vegan diet.